most commonly used words in English are West Germanic. They are formed by using the past participle either with the auxiliary verb to be or to get, although not all varieties of English allow the use of passives with get. Futurity of action is expressed periphrastically with one of the auxiliary verbs will or shall. The inflectional system regularised many irregular inflectional forms, and gradually simplified the system of agreement, making word order less flexible. As a result, some " long vowels " are often indicated by combinations of letters (like the oa in boat, the ow in how, and the ay in stay or the historically based silent e (as in note and cake ). A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs. Quantifiers, which include one, many, some and all, are used to specify the noun in terms of quantity or number. English Next: Why global English may mean the end of 'English as a Foreign Language' (PDF). Many regional international organisations such as the European Free Trade Association, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (apec) set English as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native English speakers. "Chapter 2: The Place of English in Germanic and Indo-European". "Estuary English Q and A - JCW". Encyclopedia of language linguistics. 103 104 English as a global language See also: Foreign language influences in English and Study of global communication English has ceased to be an "English language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English. Some shared features of Germanic languages include the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, the use of modal verbs, and the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Grimm's and Verner's laws. English has formal and informal speech registers ; informal registers, including child-directed speech, tend to be made up predominantly of words of Anglo-Saxon origin, while the percentage of vocabulary that is of Latinate origin is higher in legal, scientific, and academic texts. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. Germanic languages, particularly, norse (a, north Germanic language and to a greater extent. Retrieved Thomas, Erik. There is also variability within RP, particularly along class lines between Upper and Middle-class RP speakers and between native RP speakers and speakers who adopt RP later in life. The spelling system, or orthography, of English is multi-layered, with elements of French, Latin, and Greek spelling on top of the native Germanic system. Anaphorical pronouns such as that refer back to an entity already mentioned or assumed by the speaker to be known by the audience, for example in the sentence I already told you that. The Times of India. Australia and New Zealand Main articles: Australian English and New Zealand English Since 1788, English has been spoken in Oceania, and Australian English has developed as a first language of the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Australian continent.